Climate change is affecting the globe as a whole. We require immediate measures to tackle climate change. The long-term changes in the temperature and weather patterns can hamper life on earth. Recently there have been floods in parts of India, Germany, China and Turkey within a span of a few months. There are water shortages problems in India and Africa. Madagascar has already declared a food emergency.

Climate change destruction around the globe:

The temperature in continental regions is increasing rapidly. This is likely to create an unfavorable situation for activities like agriculture. The rise in sea levels has caused damage to coastlines. Constant floods and erosion have also damaged the coastal land. In polar regions, glaciers and ice sheets are melting faster. In turn, causing a rise in sea levels. These weather events have become more frequent and intense over time. Until timely action is taken, it will only get worse.

Evidently, there is a link between human activities and the causes of global warming. Initially, it was a slow process but it has accelerated over time. A collective effort of every citizen and leader is important. Developed and developing nations need to work as one binding force to avoid a global catastrophe.


1. MONTREAL Protocol, 1987:

Montreal Protocol

Every country ratified this protocol. It aimed at eliminating the production of substances that damage the ozone layer, like hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and other powerful greenhouse gases.

2. United Nations Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), 1992:

The UNFCCC was the first global treaty for climate action. It aimed at reducing the global average concentration of greenhouse gases. It also helps individual countries achieve their climate change goals.

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change - UNFCCC

3. KYOTO Protocol, 2005:

Kyoto Protocol

This protocol was a legally binding treaty. For developed countries, there were some strict rules and regulations in place. While developing countries like India and China were not legally bound to adhere to the rules. Due, to these differences in regulations for different nations, the treaty turned out to be a failure.


1. Ambitious steps of the European Union:

The European Union has adopted very ambitious legislation across multiple policy areas. Measures have been taken to fulfill its international commitments. It has set targets for the economy to substantially reduce all kinds of emissions.

By 2017, the European Union had reduced its emissions by almost 22%, compared to 1990. In 2020, they endorsed a binding target for net domestic reduction of at least 55% in greenhouse gases emissions.

While curbing climate change, it also looks forward to:

  • Achieving sustainable economic growth.
  • Create jobs in clean energy sectors.
  • Deliver health and environmental benefits to its citizens.
  • Keep on contributing to global missions of climate control.

The European Union feels a need to adopt a framework enabling cost-effective measures with fair balance and fair engagement.

Some countries of the Union like Denmark, Belgium, Portugal, Malta, Luxembourg, Cyprus, Sweden and France have already been successful in attaining their goals. They are included in the list of top 15 countries globally, which are taking the most measures for climate change.

2. Global bodies and treaties:

UNFCCC (United Nations Convention on Climate Change)

On 21st March 1994, the United Nations Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) came into force. 197 countries are a part of this Convention. Hence, they are addressed as Parties to the Convention. The ultimate aim of this union is to keep a check on human interference with the climate system. The treaty puts an onus on developed countries to lead the way with their data and finance. It also directs new funds towards climate change measures of developing countries. With the support of its parent organization, the United Nations, it leads conversations about Climate FinanceClimate TechnologyCapacity-building and a Clean Development Mechanism.

Read about: Global climate change laws

COP (Conference of Parties)

The Conference Of Parties (COP) is the supreme decision-making body of the United Nations Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). At the COP all member parties come together once a year. They get together to review their plans on measures taken to curb climate change. Also necessary decisions for future actions, including institutional and administrative arrangements. The first COP meeting was held in Berlin, Germany in March 1995. The COP has had 25 sessions already. The convention of 2020 was postponed due to the Covid pandemic. However, it is set to take place in Glasgow in November 2021.

Conference of Parties COP


Paris Agreement

The Paris agreement is a binding treaty of 195 countries to tackle and take measures against climate change. It has been instrumental in keeping a check on countries individually. Its main aim is to put a cap on greenhouse gases emissions and make nations carbon-neutral by 2030.

3. India’s Efforts:

India has been a part of all international treaties like the Kyoto Protocol, Paris Agreement. It has also been an active member of the UNFCCC and Convention Of Parties. The National Action Plan on Climate Change(NAPCC) was launched in 2008. The plan aims at missions in 8 different sectors. Under the NAPCC they launched The Green India mission It had the primary aim of protecting, restoring and enhancing India’s diminishing forest cover. Apart from this India is also involved in bilateral relations with countries like the USA, the European Union, Canada, etc.

Read about: Inda’s climate change and environmental laws


In conclusion, nations around the globe are taking measures to curb climate change. Some countries have been successful in implementing measures, while some are finding it to be difficult. Counties need to be interdependent and come together to tackle this climate crisis.

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