Do you know:

“There are more than 1200 climate change laws globally?”

Instead of more laws, countries should focus on implementing stronger frameworks and focused support.

Here, is a list of 10 laws on climate change from 10 different countries: –

Compensatory Afforestation Fund Act (India) - laws on climate change

In July 2016 this law was passed. As per the Compensatory afforestation, every time a piece of forest land is used for non-forest purposes such as mining, infrastructure or industry, the interested agency who is using the land has to pay for planting a forest on an equally large area of non-forest land, or whenever such land isn’t available, 2x the degraded forest land area. The act sets the legal framework to provide funds for afforestation. It factors around the idea of net forest value that encompasses related services. The document further creates the National Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authority (CAMPA), while setting its composition and powers. The Indian government aims at enhancing the afforestation efforts and protecting the ecosystem. For this project an allocation of Rs. 6000 crore has been made.


The clean air act is a federal law passed by the USA government to control air pollution on a national level. The first Clean Air Act was passed in December 1963. It aimed at creating research and regulatory programme in the US Public Health Service. It requires the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to develop and enforce regulations to protect the general public from exposure to hazardous airborne contaminants. The act has been amended twice, since. Firstly, in 1977 for its regulations on acid deposition and later in 1990 for stratospheric ozone protection.

Clean Air Act (USA) - laws on climate change
Canadian Net-Zero Emissions Accountability Act - Canada - laws on climate change

The Canadian net-zero emissions accountability act was passed on 29th June 2021. The Act sets outs Canada’s federal emissions reductions target in law. It also creates new mechanisms for actions to meet those targets. One of its long-term objectives is to achieve net-zero emissions by at least 2050. The Act has another 18 sections with different rules and regulations. Canada’s Net Zero Emissions Accountability Act requires that the 2030 NDC target is adopted as a legal target. As of July 2021, the Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC) target was a 30% emissions reduction from 2005 levels by 2030.

The Climate Action and Low Carbon Development Act were approved by the Irish government in December 2015 in relation to fighting climate change. The act has the purpose of putting in transition a low carbon, climate-resilient and environmentally sustainable economy and providing for matters connecting to them. The act is Ireland’s first framework piece of climate change law with the establishment of the National Expert Advisory Council on Climate Change. The July 2021 amendments provide some changes in relation to the climate change law.

Passed in February 2015, the Act on Renewable Energy Sources defines the new regime of support to all kinds of renewable sources. The act aims to stabilize this long term-support system. Through the act, Poland had set a target of 15% share of renewable energy production by 2020. The acts have been amended in 1194 and 2021 to include offshore wind investments, agreements on-grid investments and updated auction mechanisms.

The Russian law on limiting greenhouse gases was approved in July, 2021. The law defines regulations in relation to economic and other activities, accompanied by greenhouse gas emissions. This federal law also aims at creating sustainable and balanced development while reducing emissions. Within the framework, carbon offset is the main goal.

Peru’s Framework Law on Climate Change was published on 18th April 2018. It establishes the guidelines to execute management of adaptation and mitigation to climate change. This climate change law also establishes responsibilities for the Ministry of Environment in relation to the country’s NDCs. On January 1, 2020, the government approved Supreme Decree 013-2019-MINAM which regulates the dispositions of the law. The main goal here is to reduce the country’s vulnerability to adverse effects of climate change and enable the country to meet it’s international climate pledges.

The European Union has a number of laws on climate change. The European Climate Neutrality Law approved in June 2021, is applicable across the European Union. The adaptation framework establishes mitigation efforts for carbon removal. It also aims to meet the global adaptation goal of the Paris agreement. The document defines the rules to assess the progress of the Union, as well as, Member states. It also engages with the commission to engage with the wider public and to create sectoral roadmaps.

European Union Climate Neutrality Law goal - laws on climate change

In June 2018, this alternative law for the 2003 General Forest Development Law was passed. Set objectives of this law include promoting sustainable forest management regulate emissions and adaptation. It also aims at designing strategies for incorporating instruments of forest policy planning, in terms of the General Law on Climate Change and the National Climate Change Strategy. The law was later amended on April 30th, 2020, to expand the definition of ‘forest land’. This new regulation of the General Law of Sustainable Forest Development was approved by the government on 9th December 2020.

The Hungarian parliament passed a law on climate protection in June 2020. This law commits to protect the natural heritage and “the natural conditions of the way of life that we Hungarians have created together in this country”. The document stresses the need to be in line with the European Union and international goals. The law also has set targets for greenhouse gases reductions and carbon neutrality for 2050. Also, the share of renewable energy sources of the country has to be at least 21% by 2030.

A global effort, Paris Agreement and climate change 

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